(1) Creation and before history
- God’s separation with humankind
(2) Patriarchal period (2166-1446)
- The covenant
- Abraham to Moses
(3) Exodus era (1446-1406)
- Moses leadership
- The Gods commandments
(4) Era of conquest of Canaan (1406-1390)
- Joshua leadership
(5) Era of Judges (1367-1050BC)
- No leadership era
- Judged mandated to govern the Israelites
(6) United Kingdom (1050-931BC)
- Monarchy establishment
- King David emperor establishment
- King Solomon decline to monarch rule
(7) Divide kingdom (931-722 BC)
- Two-kingdom establishment, Judah and Israel
- Prophetic movement in the era
(8) Surviving kingdom (722-586 BC)
- Judah kingdom remains
(9) Babylonian captivity (586-538 BC)
- The judgments
- The Palestine separated from Israelites
(10) Restoration or silence era (538-400 BC)
- Return of Jews from captivity
- 400 years to the end of New Testament
- 400 years to the beginning of the Old Testament
Major eras of Old Testament history
A Bible is a collection of books from the Old Testament and the New Testament. Old Testament books provide literatures and the history of the Old Testament eras and description while the New Testament provides literatures and the history of the New Testament eras. Old testaments tell the history of the peoples of Israel and their relationship with God. Old Testament literatures and history is divided into nine historical eras. These eras include; Creation and Pre-History, Patriarch, Exodus, Conquest, Judges, Kingdom, Exile, Return and Silence. In the essay, eras in the old testaments, period they existed and some of the world events that coincide with them are pointed out.
The first era is the era of Creation and pre-history. This era entails the creation of the Adam and Eve. God created the world and human being and kept Adam and eve in the garden of Aden. Sins committed by Adam and Eve resulted to gods plan for humankind be destroyed and were cursed to toil for their living. A description of this era is read from the book of Genesis 1-11. Main events as per the chapters include creation of Adam and Eve in genesis one and two, and fall into sin temptation in genesis chapter three. In addition, a judgment for the sin was flood (genesis chapter 6 to chapter 10) and the beginning of the nations from the tower of Babel event (genesis chapter 11) (Old Testament Overview, nd p. 1)
The second era is the era of Patriarch that occurred between 2166BC and 1446 BC (Friedman, nd, and p.6). In this era, Abraham and his defendant were the Gods chosen people to represent God in the world. Gods plan was to choose humankind who were his creation and focused to work with them to produce a reflection of him. This era is characterized by Abraham been the leader, with promised land, and countless descendants, who were to be blessed abundantly. The era is detailed in genesis chapter 12 to chapter 50 (Old Testament Overview, nd, p. 2). Some of the well-known and influential personalities in the era include Abraham the father of the Gods people, Isaac the second father, and Jacob the father of the nation of Israel. In addition, Joseph appears to be the leader in Egypt after been sold by his brothers. After his death, Jews status decline and are reduced to a level of been slaves by enemies.
The era of Exodus (1446-1406 BC) (Friedman, nd, p.6) was the third old testament Israelites era. This era has a central feature where Moses is given the Ten Commandments and other guidelines for life, government and how people are supposed to worship God. Moses becomes the leader who was supposed to lead people to the Promised Land. The Old Testament books also give the deliverance of the gods chosen people from slavery and hardship. Events in this era are from the books of Exodus, Leviticus, numbers, and Deuteronomy. These events include; freedom from slavery, gods law (commandments at Mount Sinai), place of rebellion with gods and the consequences of rebelling against god (wandering) (Old Testament Overview, nd, p. 3).
The era of Conquest (1406-1390 BC) (Friedman, nd, p.6) became the fourth era. Moses died in the era of exodus and fails to lead people to the Promised Land. In this era, Joshua becomes the new leader and lead Gods chosen generation to the Promised Land. The era is characterized by four main events. These are the miraculous parting of Jordan River (Joshua 1- 5), the collapse of the Jericho walls after marching 7 times around it (Joshua 6). Defeating of Canaan is another event (Joshua 7-12) and the dominion where the 12 tribes of Israelites are allotted land (Joshua 13-20) (Old Testament Overview, nd, p. 3). Defeating of Canaan is today repeated with the fights of Palestinians, Philippine and the Afghanistan wars.
The era of Judges was the fifth era that was 1367BC and 1050 BC (Friedman, nd, p.6). The chosen generation, or the chosen Gods peoples were led by judges. In the era, God chooses various leaders/governors called judges to lead and govern people for over four hundred years of rebellion. The judges were political military leaders of Israel who excised absolute powers against their followers. Some of the major judges included; Gideon, Samson, Deborah and Samuel who was transition judge and a prophet (Old Testament Overview, nd, p. 5). Major events included judge’s rebellion to Moses instructions after his death, the repetitions of the misfortunes in Israel after ever judge die. The misfortunes occur as cycles after the death of the first four judges. In the era, Ruth being a foreigner stands for a faithful model that is committed to serve God.
Between year 1050 BC and 931 BC, the Old Testament era of United Kingdom came to pass (Friedman, nd, p.6). After Joshua lead people to attack the southern and the northern kingdoms, the chosen generation gained kingdom. This was contributed by Joshua killing the southern kings and defeated armies. This era ended by the king Solomon’s reigns end. The rivalry between Israel and Judah be4gan forcing kingdom divided into two parts. The era of Exile that was the seventh era existed between 931 BC and 722 BC. Through the Gods prophets, Israel and Judah failed to listen to God warnings. For this reason, God used Babylonia and Assyria to take them to exile. In the exile, Gods appear to have abandoned them for punishment and latter restored them to fulfill his promises. The era of Return (722-586 BC), Gods used Joshua to lead Israelites to the Promised Land and established territory (Friedman, nd, p.6). He delivers them from exile by taking them to the Promised Land. The chosen generation stated rebuilding their land and spiritual institutions. However, the promises for restoration and been Gods chosen people remain unfulfilled as the book of Old Testament end. The ninth and the last era was Silence or restoration (538-400 BC) (Friedman, nd, p.6). This era is characterized by silence and restoration of Gods relationship with the Israelites. Major promises and restoration were made to the people of Israelites. This era act as a transition period between the Old Testament and New Testament. Bible is more than the historical records and provide prove to the existing ancient cities, for example the Palestinians sites.
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