Applied Statistics and Research Methods

When program output is referenced, either reproduce the output in your response or include the
pertinent values from the output in your discussion.
1.) [20 pts] Respond to the following questions.
i. Describe in detail what is meant by \MSW” within an ANOVA analysis. What does it
represent, and how is it used?
ii. The idea of \partitioning variation” is prevalent in ANOVA models. Discuss what is meant
by partitioning variation, and how it helps evaluate hypotheses of interest in ANOVA models.
iii. Describe what is meant by \Pairwise Comparisons” within an ANOVA analysis. When can
these comparisons be used in the research process?
iv. Compare the interpretation of an \interaction e ect” for xed and random interaction terms.
2. [30 pts] Respond to the following questions.
i. While collecting data for a study intended to compare the number of graduates from Master’s
programs across ve di erent colleges, a researcher notices the observed numbers of Master’s
graduates are highest for majors in the College of Education and Behavioral Sciences. He
suggests a contrast be applied to compare graduation volume in this college to all other
colleges combined. How would you respond?
ii. You read a manuscript about a study to assess \recovery progress” through ten weeks of an
outpatient addiction recovery program. For their study, the researchers randomly selected 16
participants in the program and recorded a continuous measure of \craving” for their addictive
substance at the end of the rst week, second week, and so on up through the end of the tenth
week. They then applied a One-Factor ANOVA to compare \craving” across the ten weeks.
How would you respond?
iii. You are reviewing a paper that examines the \time spent studying with technology” for
undergraduate students. The paper includes a One-Factor ANOVA comparing \time” across
gender (using 98 observations) and another One-Factor ANOVA comparing \time” across
class year (using 110 observations). How would you respond?
iv. A fellow researcher is interested in the e ect of principals on high school graduation rates. He
would like to know when \principal” should be treated as a random e ect, as opposed to a
xed e ect. What explanation would you provide to this researcher?
v. In your research using a Two-Factor ANOVA, you would like to omit the interaction term.
Explain the danger(s) of omitting a signi cant interaction e ect, and describe at least one
situation in which it acceptable to omit this e ect.
Applied Statistics and Research Methods – Fall 2014 – SRM 603 Midterm 2
3. [25 pts] For the purposes of designing coursework that involves both face-to-face and online
components, higher education researchers are interested in studying students’ \experience using
technology” (standardized to be on a scale from -15 to 15; -15 corresponds to \no experience” and
15 corresponds to \highly experienced”). They would like to compare \experience” across three
groups of students: \traditional undergraduate” students (denoted by TU), \traditional graduate”
students (denoted by TG), and \nontraditional” students (denoted by NT). At each of 4 randomly
selected universities, 5 students of each type are selected (giving 15 students per school), and their
\experience” is measured through a self-report survey.
i. Identify the research interest. Clearly describe a potential research question, dependent vari-
able, and independent variable(s).
ii. Propose an appropriate model. Include a model equation, and explain the role of each term
in your equation.
iii. Using the SAS le \Question3.sas”, perform an analysis according to your model. (Feel free
to change the SAS le or use a di erent program!) If you use this SAS le, make sure your
output is consistent with the model chosen in part ii.
iv. Answer the research question, \Does the experience of students who are `nontraditional’ di er
from the experience of both `traditional undergraduate’ and `traditional graduate’ students?
v. Researchers would like to know the expected student experience for each type of student, as
well as which of these values di er from each other. Answer these \post-hoc” questions.
vi. Describe two ways you would improve this study in the future.
4. [25 pts] Nutrition researchers are interested in the link between education level and diet.
Speci cally, they are interested in the di erences in daily calorie intake between individuals with a
High School Degree or equivalent (HSD), an Associate’s Degree (AD), a Bachelor’s Degree (BD),
some graduate courses (SGC), or completed graduate school (CGS). Based on a strati ed random
sample that includes 40 individuals from each of the ve education groups, average daily calorie
intake and gender have both been recorded for each participant. The researcher would like to model
daily calorie intake using both education level and gender. Using the le \Question4.sas,” perform
a complete analysis of the data. (Feel free to change the SAS le or use a di erent program!) Be
very clear and thorough about research interests, hypotheses, reasoning behind any tests or models,
and conclusions.

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