Does Parental involvement in after-school sports programs increase grades and reduce dropout rates for high school Adolescents in poor urban neighborhoods?

1[a] Identify the independent variable in the research question, its values, operational Definition, and level of measurement (LOM).
[b] Identify all Dependent Variables (2-3), their values, Operational Definitions, and Level of Measurement (LOM).
[c] Identify any other variables such as control variables, Demographic variables, their values, operational Definitions, and Level of Measurement (LOM).

2. Choose one identified variable for which a known scale or instrument would be used to measure the variable. For this scale, summarize the following (Be sure to properly cite content).
[a] Describe the instrument, including how it is administrated, scoring procedures, and any other relevant information about the measurement strategy;
[b] Discuss who the measure has been tested with (study participants) and any potential populations that the measure may not be useful for, given cultural and Linguistic considerations for the study. This is usually referred as “norms” in the description of scale.
[c] Provide a description of the reliability of the instrument, demonstrating an understanding of the meaning of this concept and how reliability is evaluated. (Do not simply cite the content included and the description or critique).
[d] Provide a description of the validity of the instrument, demonstrating an understanding of the meaning of this concept and how validity is evaluated. (Do not simply cite the content included in the description or critique).

3. Choose another variable where a different method of measurement besides a known scale or instrument (e.g.; Self-report, archival records, biological data, or observation) is used to measure the variable. Describe the merits and drawbacks of using this approach in terms of the concepts of reliability and validity.
Consider issue such as the accuracy of the data, the consistency of the data collection protocols and how the data collection might be impacted by such factors as memory, honesty, social desirability, careless record-keeping and subjectivity. Does this measurement process capture the conceptual meaning of the variable as intended?

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