Does the evidence support the effectiveness of the policy

Assignment Instructions for

Effectiveness Evaluation/Analysis

Assignment: Write a paper that addresses the following”

· Evaluation Criteria

· On what basis will the position/policy be evaluated?

· Specifically apply/define the evaluation criteria to your position/policy.

· This is the only way you will know how to evaluate the evidence.

1.    There will be a 50% increase in access to healthy meals exhibited through student participation rates in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (SBP). 2.     Healthier eating patterns of school-age children exhibited by increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased consumption of sodium as evidenced by maintaining a body weight between the 5th-85th percentile. 3.     Expansion of support for breastfeeding through the Special Supplemental Nutrition for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program as evidenced by 80% of new moms being offered breastfeeding support through the WIC program.

· Evidence

· Present the evidence from the literature (studies) that specifically address the criteria of focus and demonstrate effectiveness or ineffectiveness based on the criteria.

· Provide sufficient detail of the evidence to be able to determine the level of evidence and critically determine its applicability to the position.

USDA’s National School Lunch Program reduces food insecurity

https://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2017/august/usda-s-national-school-lunch-program-reduces-food-insecurity/

children receiving free or reduced-price NSLP lunches consume fewer empty calories and more fiber, milk, fruit, and vegetables than income-eligible nonparticipants, both at lunch and during a full 24 hours; more likely to have adequate average intakes of calcium, vitamin A and zinc

Community eligibility adoption rises for the 2015-2016 school year, increasing access to school meals http://www.frac.org/wp-content/uploads/take-up-of-cep-report.pdf

2015-2016 school year increase of about 4,000 schools adopted community eligibility (breakfast and lunch provided at no charge to all students in a high poverty school, 40% of students in a school identified as vulnerable)

2014-2015 – 14,214 schools participated = 6.7 million

2015-2016 – over 18,000 schools participated = more than 8.5 million children

About 45% of eligible schools participate

Provides reliable access to healthy meals

CDC Winnable Battles Final Report https://www.cdc.gov/winnablebattles/report/nutrition.html CDC goal for childhood obesity – 15.4%, ages 2-19 prevalence remained stable at 17% 2008-2014

Vaudrin, N., Lloyd, K., Yedidia, M. J., Todd, M., and Ohri-Vachaspati, P. (2018). Impact of the 2010 US Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act on school breakfast and lunch participation rates between 2008 and 2015

New standards implemented in 2012-2013 school year – more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and a gradual reduction in sodium content

2008-2009 participation rates – breakfast-all students 52%, free and reduced 49%, lunch – all students and free and reduced 71%

2012-2013 participation rates – breakfast-all students 52%, free and reduced-47%, lunch-all students 69%, free and reduced- 71%

2014-2015 participation rates – breakfast-all students 60%, free and reduced 64%, lunch-all students 71%, free and reduced 73%

No significant increase in lunch participation

Cohen, J., Richardson, S., Parker, E., Catalano, P. J., and Rimm, E. B. (2014) Impact of the new U.S. Department of Agriculture school meal standards on food selection, consumption, and waste.

Many low-income students rely on school meals for up to half of their daily energy intake

New standards – students required to select a fruit or vegetable, only fat-free or low-fat 1% milk, maximum level of calories that varies by grade, portion sizes of fruits and vegetables was increased

Fruit selection increased by 23%, entrée and vegetable selection remained unchanged.

Vegetable consumption – % consumed increased from 24.9% to 41.1% (decrease in plate waste), increase in cups per day from 0.13 cups/day to 0.31 cups/day

Fruits – no significant increase in percentage or quantity consumed. However, 23% more students selected fruits

Milk selection and consumption decreased

Schwartz, M. B., Henderson, K. E., Read, M., Danna, N., and Ickovics, J. R. (2015). New school meal regulations increase consumption and do not increase total plate waste.

This study evaluated the policy effects on plate waste and participation by looking at student selection of the healthier meals. More fruits and vegetables were consumed despite declining numbers in 2014 because the portion sizes were increased. There was also no negative effects on plate waste.

Fruit selection – 2012-54%, 2013-71%, 2014-66%

Entrée selection – 2012-91.4%, 2013-95.5%, 2014-98.3%

Vegetable selection – 2012-68.4%, 2013-61.6%, 2014-51.9%

Consumption – vegetables 2012-45.6%, 2013-38.9%, 2014-63.6%, fruit 2012-72.3%, 2013-60.7%, 2014-74.3%, entrée 2012-70.9%, 2013-67.9%, 2014-83.6%, milk 2012-53.8%, 2013-53.6%, 2014-56.7%

More nutritious meals and less overall plate waste

New entrees meet whole grain and meat/meat alternate regulations (less plate waste)

Carson, J. A. (2015). Many eligible children don’t participate in school nutrition programs

63.5% of income eligible households participate in school lunch program, 52% participate in breakfast program

· Summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence.

Vaudrin, N., Lloyd, K., Yedidia, M. J., Todd, M., and Ohri-Vachaspati, P. (2018). Impact of the 2010 US Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act on school breakfast and lunch participation rates between 2008 and 2015

Strengths – A study with data over 7 years, (4 years before HHFKA and 3 years after), used annual average daily participation (ADP) – other studies used data from a selected number of days in a school year

Weaknesses – study done using only 4 urban, low-income, high-minority cities in New Jersey (however, this is the target demographics at risk for food insecurity)

81% of students in the study area were eligible for free or reduced-price meals (meal participation rates are higher among students eligible for free or reduced-price meals)

The number of schools included in the study was not consistent throughout the 7 years (08/09 – 139, 2014/2015 – 119 schools)

Cohen, J., Richardson, S., Parker, E., Catalano, P. J., and Rimm, E. B. (2014) Impact of the new U.S. Department of Agriculture school meal standards on food selection, consumption, and waste.

Strengths – large sample size – 1030 students

Study used the same students for the pre and post implementation data collection (limited student-to-student variability)

Weaknesses – only elementary and middle school children in an urban, low-income district examined

4 schools in one school district

Higher-income school districts, and high schools not included

Only one geographic area studied

Data collection over just one year

Schwartz, M. B., Henderson, K. E., Read, M., Danna, N., and Ickovics, J. R. (2015). New school meal regulations increase consumption and do not increase total plate waste.

Strengths – Data collection took place over 3 years at the same 12 schools with the same group of children (studied the cohorts of students from 5th to 7th grade);

All schools from an urban low-income school district This can be perceived as a strength and weakness (it is our target demographics, but food insecurity and obesity can exist in higher incomes)-

Weaknesses – Data was only collected once a year, sample size decreased each year (year 1-545, year 2-508, year 3-430 less students participated in the school lunch program on study dates),

· If there is no evidence for the selected criteria, are there parallels applicable (studies from other issues)?

There are no studies that provide evidence regarding BMI or breastfeeding in relation to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act

· Critical analysis / Recommendation(Write 3 pages on this topic)

· Does the evidence support the effectiveness of the policy? or

· Does the evidence suggest the policy is ineffective based on selected criteria?

· As a result of the evidence should the policy be adopted as originally presented?

· Should the policy be modified or should other options be considered?

· What characteristics of the policy are critical for success according to the criteria?

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