Does western theory parallel with Islamic perspective

Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing © 2014 Indian Association of Health 2014, 5(2), 252–255 Research and Welfare http://www.iahrw.com/index.php/home/journal_detail/19#list

The purpose of this study is to identify three stages of human development based on Islamic Perspective. Methods of this study are trough observation on behavior 4 years, 10 years old childhood and 16 years old of adolescence. Basically the observations were focusing on the performance in praying and recitations of the Quran. In additions, the researcher also run an unstructure interview with the participant. The result of this study reflect that during the early childhood, kids didn’t have a strong basic understanding about their actions, it can be categorized as play zone, no punishment will be focused on them. However when they reach 4 years old they might have an ability to perform solat and recite Quran by exemplify their parent. Children in the age of 10 years old have a basic knowledge about religions, they could make sense what they perform every day. This circumstance reflects that children in this stage have knowledge about rules Nevertheless, because lack of understanding, parental guid- ance and reinforcement still needed in certain periods. Lastly for adolescence, this is the time when a parent has changed their strategies of educations when befriends is this best way to educate, it’s because their understanding of the do and they don’t have start organizes, then in this age know and understand about rules very well based on the environment a side.

Keywords: Early childhood, Childhood, Adolescence, Islam

Exploring children development based on Islamic point of view Siti Salwa Md. Sawari

Institute of Education, International Islamic University, Malaysia

Despite of this only some Muslim who are really consent about this discussion, and just a few where really become famous and taken as part of parcel Literature review. Name as Al-Kindi (803-873) Imam Ghazali (1058-1111), and Ibnu Sina (980-1037) was previous Muslim scholar who their works in Human development can make us proud until today. However lack of interest among Muslim now a days will make us back forward in Psychology field.

Significance of the study Therefore this research is signifying as proved from Islamic sources about development of early childhood, child and adolescence in Islamic perspective as specify.

Purpose of the research The purpose of this study is to identify characteristic of three stages of human development based on Islamic Perspective.

Research questions The study answers three following questions:

• What are the characteristic of each stages of development ? • What is the prophet (pbuh) implying in the hadith? • Does western theory parallel with Islamic perspective?

Definitions of terms Early childhood: Light Spirit, active in his work, can be defined as a person in range age of 0 to 7 years old

Childhood: Boy when born to Jasper or while near puberty, and called on the man metaphorically

Adolescence: Close to “Rusd “ periods from 12 to 24 years old Alqamus Online

Development of human being is part of parcel of human cycle life, being a normal human being, all mankind will go through a life-span development whereby its began stages by stages with- out skip any level of development. Started from infancy, toddler, preschooler, school-aged, adolescent, early, adult, middle-aged, adult, late-aged adult, such this stages has been explain by most the western scholar Bledsoe, Cherry, Porter (2003). Nevertheless Al Quran as a primary sources of Muslim also explain the stages a of human development in the different terminology. Exemplify the infant development inside a mother womb which has been describe in Holy Quran:

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Verily We created man from a product of wet earth; (12) Then placed him as a drop (of seed) in a safe lodging; (13) Then fash- ioned We the drop a clot, then fashioned We the clot a little lump, then fashioned We the little lump bones, then clothed the bones with flesh, and then produced it as another creation. So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators!(13:14).

This is such a pattern of development as infant, Despite of infant development there are also various stages of the development that has been explain clearly in Islam therefore the main focus of this studies is observe the three stages of human development which are early childhood, childhood and adolescence as specify.

Statement of problem There are various theory come out from west continent whereby most of psychology scholar are among the Christian and atheism people.

Correspondence should be sent to Siti Salwa Md. Sawari Institute of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia

SITI SALWA MD. SAWARI/ExPLORING CHILDREN DEvELOPMENT BASED ON ISLAMIC POINT Of vIEW 253

Sample of the studies Three girls in the differences ages where selected from a religious family. first is 4 years old, second 10 years old and thirds 16 years old

Literature review In Islam the early of human development has been classify into three basic stages which are each stages preserve seven years of amount time to be develop. Based on saying one of the companion of Prophet Muhammad Pbuh, Saidina Umar:

“play with our children till the age of 7, to discipline and teach them from the age of 7 to 14 and to befriend them at the age of 14 above”

Each stages of development need difference type of connec- tions, relationship and educations whereby when its explain that from zero to seven years old baby we will give them a freedom as a master, lets them play and enjoy their life as a child, while for second stages this is where parent will play the roles to educate and training them difference from before. Besides that for the third level is to see the fruit of the seed of the second stages training, good conditions of second level education and training will lead to future succeed of life.

First stages (0-7 years development) “1) child play up to seven years”

Based on the hadith prophet said that gives them freedom to play there are which time playing is the necessity things for a child in their development. We could view that naturally in this stages children will like to play around with every things.

The first stages of beginning of life is important for parent, because in this stages parent will play a role to design, create and panting the baby structure. Based on prophet saying that:

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“Every child is born with a true faith (i.e. to worship none but Allah alone) but his parents convert him to Judaism or to Christianity or to Magianism”. [Narrated by Al-Bukhari]

This hadith reflect the role of parent as the designer to educate the children, where to decided what shape there want. Children in this stages are purely and have no right and wrong about what are people around are doing, so imitations and examples is the best ways to develop of their self. Therefore when we related this with the firs view point of playing we could find that parent will help them to choose and select what type of activities they could play. In additions to this children in this stages look likely will imitated what are their parent, siblings and surrounding do, so copy paste activity will hap- pen. During this level no force mean or hardship apply to them like what has been done by our prophet “Sayyidina Hassan and Hussein was a kids, when the Prophet’s Prayer, and he put them to the side. The two grandchildren are noticed motion strung in his prayers. In fact, when he prostrated, both the boy jumped into his back. Then there is someone who tried prohibit the child, but he hinted that left both playing in the back”.

While looking on the werstend view by Jean Piaget

The first stage is known as premoral judgement and lasts from birth until about five years of age. In this stage, children simply do not understand the concept of rules and have no idea of morality, internal or external.

Second stages (7-14 years development) “keep him with you (for education and training)”

The uses of slaves in this hadith are reflecting to the development of educated and training whereby explanations about “the do” and “the don’t” will apply to this stages, we can see at this time force meant and punishment could be done trough educations. Hats why in this stages children somehow look like as slaves who are needed to follow whatever obligations. Event though the Islamic obligations on this stages still not be as compulsory or consider as sinful if they left it but the necessity of educations really need for this stages, like what Islam has thought in Islamic educated your children pray when there reach 7 years old, beat them if do not want to pray when there reach of 10, separate their bed from difference gender. Like what have been mentions by prophet Pbuh.

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In this stages of development the children will already have

logic thinking and often think and sound almost “grown-up.” Katherine Lee (2012). Therefore if there been though to pray since 7 years so when they reach 10 years old there will think logically that there need pray and do right think naturally, but compulsion are need to make sure they done the right because the level of knowing and thinking still need training continuously until there reach of puberty or 14 years old.

Despite of this looking on western view by Jaen Piages (6-12 years)

The second stage is called moral realism. Children in this stage now understand the concept of rules, but they are seen as external and immutable. Children obey rules largely because they are there. Since a rule tells you what you’re not supposed to do, moral realist children evaluate wrongdoing in terms of its consequences, not the intentions of the wrongdoer.

This statement also being agree by L.Lampert (2012) because according to him, children in the this age will have the ability to difference side between right and wrong each consider as Mumaiz in Islam, however event though they have the knowledge but its guidance and reinforcement still needed.

Thirds stages (14-21 years development) “to befriend them at the age of 14 above ”

The selection of 14 years old hear because could be change based on their puberty stages because, traditionally in the past most of girls and boy having puberty in the age of 14th years commonly. In Islam when someone have reach the level of puberty therefore in this time all the obligations become compulsory for them to be done and there will responsible for any doing except for some juveniles. Like what has been mentions in IKIM official website by K.A.Idris.”All individual Muslims who have reached puberty,

254 Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing 2014, 5(2), 252–255

thoughtless and mukallaf, are the ones who have been taught to be responsible with the full trust and sincere and acountability with their doing”. During this age we can view the product of development of second stages. If in the previous stages there will be able to perform pray completely so there is no problem to view the same result in this stages. During this periods parent will play role as friends of their children no longer as the While according to the Jane Pigeas

The third and final stage is called moral relativity. Children who have reached this stage recognise that rules are not fixed, but can be changed by mutual consent, and they start to develop their own internal morality which is no longer the same as external rules. A major development is that ac- tions are now evaluated more in terms of their intentions, which most people would see as a more sophisticated view of morality.

Method This studies can be consider as qualitative research whereby two method of study where used to examine research questions which are participant observations and interview. In this studies three dif- ference level age of girls has been investigate naturally without their concern until the last day when they being ask an interview questions, the purpose of the study where mention by us. The reason off keep the investigations as a secrete because in order to make sure natural actions from all of them. In this research we have take three differ- ence level of age of participant to be observe which are among 4, 10 and 16 years old. The research observations where done by one of the researchers who are also role as their relative, living with all of them and acting as their usually relative has let to clear and precise observations result.

The researchers where observe how the participant where though to perform the their prayer and recitations of Quran

First stages (0-7 years development) • The parent will pray and read Quran for several times. The child

will set sides. • Than parent will ask them to pray together

Second stages (7-14 years development) • This stages parent will ask for prayer when pray times, various

times reminder will be ask, and if she still not perform some punishment will be done.

• During Recitations of Quran, the children will ask in the same manner.

• One day the will be left to perform

Thirds stages (14-21 years development) In this stages just left them do pray and recite Quran. No instruction will be given in order to observe their actions.

Besides the observations, there are also an interview done with them, with I have put as appendix at the back.

Results During the early childhood, kids didn’t have a strong basic under- standing about their actions, this is because early childhood is zone of playing. However during this periods some of them may have an ability to perform solat and recite Quran result from exemplify their parent. Children in the age of 10 years old have a strong basic of religions, they could make sense what their perform every day, this is effect of continues training on solat and recitations of Quran since they we in the early childhood, nevertheless parental guid- ance and reinforcement still needed in certain periods whereby they may forget or take the actions in easy way. Lastly for adolescence, this is the time when parent has change their strategies of educa- tions when befriends is this best way to educated it’s because their understanding of the do and they don’t have completely organizes, teen in this age know very well about their obligations to perform pray and recite the Quran.

Discussion Based on the observations have the ability to perform prayer and recite Quran after several time seeing their parent. The child are willingly to follow parent actions without any compulsions. However when we force the child to do it, she will refuses to follow. According to this finding it has prove what are the significant of actions of by prophet when he left a side Hassan and Hussin play during prophet are praying. Besides that the children in this stages still in playing mode whereby punishment and force mean could not been apply for them like what has been though by Saidina Ali. The reason behind this because at this age it seem that they didn’t have any basic believe or understand- ing about what purpose of doing things. Despite of this move on the piagest theory it could be explain the result similarly explain about Piages theory when he said that children simply do not understand the concept of rules and have no idea of morality, internal or external.

In additions examine finding of the second stages, 10 years old child tell that they understood about the important of Solat and recitations of Quran based on what the parent though to them, and even when they left this obligations feeling of guilty will come to their heart. In this moment we can view role of parent in discipline the children as been mention by Saidina Ali keep him with you (for education and training)”.Moving on the western theory done by Piages its show in one of the research to 10 years old children who is critique a games because its lack of rules:

Ben, a ten year old studied by Piaget, provided the follow- ing e critique of a rule made-up by a child playing marbles: “it isn’t a rule! It’s a wrong rule because it’s outside of the rules. A fair rule is one that is in the game”. Ben believed in the absolute and intrinsic truth of the rules, characteristic of early moral reasoning

Therefore its seem that this finding coincided of Islam when we said that children in this stage now understand the concept of rules in doing some things.

However, even though they know the right and wrong but in this studies its seem that the sample still keep delaying the solat and left the recitations of Quran when the parent just keep silent

SITI SALWA MD. SAWARI/ExPLORING CHILDREN DEvELOPMENT BASED ON ISLAMIC POINT Of vIEW 255

not ask them to do it. Therefore when their parent asks to do and force them they will do the prayer. furthermore in certain time the force mean still not work so the parent will give a punish- ment than they will do the actions. So it’s true what has been explained by prophet that children at this stages should be punish if they left the solat in order to educated them and parallel with Lampert (2012) even though they know it’s right and wrong but reinforcement still need.

Observing the last stages, it has been found that a strong disci- pline and Islamic training before this stages leave an impression a strong structure of Islamic understanding. In this research its has been found that without any command, the participant capable to complete prayer and recitations of Quran alone. It’s no longer needed for punishment or reinforcement but just a reminder, so the result parent will no longer become a trainer but rather their partner. In additions based on the conversations with her, we found that she has a clear understanding about solat and Quran. Therefore this result similarly where agree by the Islamic law when choosing puberty as the accountability periods K.A. Idris. Despite on the western perspective done by Piages its seem some similarity finding when he explain that children in this age know and understand rules differ from stages before, it can be view trough his experiment

Vua, illustrates an understanding of the reasoning behind the application of rules, characteristic of later moral think- ing. When asked to consider the fairness of a made-up rule compared to a traditional rule, Vua replied “It is just as fair because the marbles are far apart”(making the game equally difficult).

Conclusions

As a nutshell, as been mention by one of companion of prophet Muhammad pbuh, Saidina Umar R.A. that “”educated your child according their time”, this word has signify that education for each level of development in the life span are difference picture and sign, so it is indeed for parent to apply various care and multiple type of education for each level. Besides that we could explain that each of actions of prophet has signify benefits towards human life. Last but not list we would like to recommendation for further research on the whole stages of development referring on the Holy Quran and Hadith as a sources.

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