Effect of restaurant tipping on male and female servers: Comprehensive Core Assignment

Part I of Assignment

Reference:
Rind B., & Bordia, P. (1996). Effect of restaurant tipping on male and female servers drawing a happy, smiling face on the backs of customers� checks. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 218-225.
(This document is available in PDF format in the course site in the final paper area).

Background information: A waitress, who worked in an upscale restaurant on a university campus at lunchtime, drew a happy, smiling face on the checks of a random half of her customers. In Part A of this assignment you will be given the average percentage she was left as a tip under the two conditions (with a happy face and without a happy face). A waiter at the same restaurant did the same thing. In Part B, you will be provided with the average percentages he was left as a tip under the two conditions.

Complete the following for Part I of this Assignment:
(1) Clearly state the research problem
(2) Identify and operationally define the independent and dependent variables
(3) Before examining the data, predict the results you will obtain. (When scientists make predictions, they are hypothesizing). Predictions are not right or wrong, but represent your best guess as to the outcomes you will obtain. Determine your hypothesis(es) before proceeding.
(4) Based on the information given, describe the research method used
(5) Based on the quantitative information provided below, develop a graph to visually communicate the results. (You will have to calculate the mean for all groups)
(6) Determine what valid conclusions can be drawn (based on the graph and the means)
(7) Identify any short-comings or limitations of the research described.

Data for Part A (waitress)
1. These are the tip percentages the waitresses received from 23 dining parties when no happy face is on the check:
45% 39% 36% 34% 34% 33% 31% 31%
30% 30% 28% 28% 28% 27% 27% 25%
23% 22% 21% 21% 20% 18% 8%

2. These are the tip percentages the waitress received from 22 dining parties when she put a smiley face on the customers� check:
72% 65% 47% 44% 41% 40% 34% 33%
33% 30% 29% 28% 27% 27% 25% 24%
24% 23% 22% 21% 21% 17%

Data for Part B (waiter)
1. These are the tip percentages the waiter received from 21 dining parties when no happy face is on the check:
48% 40% 38% 33% 31% 27% 23% 23%
23% 22% 21% 21% 21% 20% 18% 16%
15% 9% 0% 0% 0%

2. These are the tip percentages the waiter received from 23 dining parties when he put a smiley face on the customers� check:
31% 27% 26% 23% 23% 21% 21% 19%
18% 18% 17% 17% 17% 16% 15% 15%
15% 14% 14% 13% 12% 9% 9%

Part II of the Assignment
In this portion of the assignment, you will expound upon the research problem presented above. You will present an alternative empirical design, thus you have the flexibility to propose any empirical research that is related to the topic at hand. The prior research has limitations; utilize your critical thinking skills to more broadly identify the research problem (this can include related areas in psychology). As part of this assignment, find a few select peer-reviewed journal articles on the topic. After reviewing the articles, complete the following:

(1) Clearly communicate in writing the research problem as you define it
(2) Identify and operationally define your proposed independent and dependent variables
(3) State your own research hypothesis(es)
(4) Clearly articulate what research methods you would employ. (You must provide enough detail to theoretically conduct and replicate the suggested research.) Be sure to identify the population and sample you would utilize.
(5) Based on the related literature and the above experiment, what are your expected findings?
(6) Identify any limitations of your research. Additionally, explicitly state how the findings in your proposed sample would vary across different geographic regions, cultures, and other global communities. You will need to clearly communicate differences in potential findings across cultures and global communities.
(7) In order to demonstrate civic responsibility and cultural understanding, describe how you would share information about the potential cultural differences in your findings in order to educate your community and increase multicultural awareness and acceptance. Also, indicate if there are any reasons to believe that local or regional politics will influence how your potential findings will be interpreted.

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