Ethics and the future of the Net

Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•What is happening to the character and quality of our lives as a result of our widespread use of computers?
•Are they
•Making our lives better?
•Enhancing or eroding our values?
•Impeding or facilitating democracy?
•Increasing safety or increasing risk?
•Enhancing or eroding autonomy?
•Individuals
•Many jobs are directly involved in the collection, processing, and evaluation of data.
•Performance of many workers is monitored by computers.
•As consumers, virtually our entire lives are recorded and analysed.
•Governments maintain massive files on all public aspects of our lives.
•Dehumanisation
•Many people find technology to be dehumanising
•Many people feel that they should be recognised by their name, and not have to rely on a number for identification.
•Companies can minimise problems by using numbers only for internal identification and rely on a combination of name and address or phone number when they deal with customers.

•During the last 100 years, technology has increased the number of jobs and raised the standard of living of most workers.
•Since the introduction of computers in the 1950s, the world’s economies have grown and incomes have increased
•Individual worker can lose jobs in the short run.
•In the long run, lower-skilled workers experience greater difficulty in finding new jobs.

•Demand for specialists changes constantly.
•Jobs that are well defined and require little innovation or thought can usually be performed easily by computers.
•What managers can do toward this problem?

•Technology offers many possibilities to provide jobs for workers with physical disabilities.
•Most windows-based software contains features to facilitate usage by people with various physical challenges.
•Websites still present accessibility problems, particularly for those with visual impairments.

•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•The Intelligent home (elderly & handicapped)
•Help technologies – door openers, curtain movers, taped messages (the light is on, etc.)
•Alarms
•Communication technologies – handling files, mail system, etc. for home-nurses
•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Problems
•Data protection
•Intelligent homes store large amounts of personal information
•Potential for surveillance and social control
•Fear the human care and contact will be reduced and that technological solutions will take the place of human helpers
•Conflict between provision of a safe environment for the person and respect for that person’s integrity
•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Intelligent Agents
•users able to delegate tasks
•issues of privacy and responsibility
•a software agent carries a great deal of information on the user for whom it is acting
•security mechanisms should prevent a hostile host “hi-jacking” a software agent or from gathering data from visiting agents.

•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Ubiquitous Computing & Privacy of Location
•proposes implantation of fixed infrastructures in buildings that allow mobile systems to communicate, whatever their location inside the building or whatever building they are in
•raises issues of privacy – a person’s location can be identified easily without them even realising this
•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Electronic badges and tags
•Things can no longer be lost
•Independence of the “thing” has been eroded
•The “thing” has now become a “thing under surveillance”
•Embedded Sensors (to gather state information) and Actuators (to change the state)
•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Embedded sensors
•Example – trees – character of autonomous living significantly curtailed
•Once the identity, location and state information has been disseminated through the Web the anonymity of the tree has been liquidated
•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Tele-environments
•Mapping an environment into a computational surrogate – video + sound + sensor information
•Leads to creation of integrated functional views of any environment Þ tele-manipulation through actuators
•Separateness and uniqueness have been eroded
•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Ubiquitous computing needs to become invisible in order to achieve maximal ubiquity without interfering with the performance of activities
•Consequence – we take for granted that things are under surveillance
•Identity Cards
•Useful way of preventing crime and reducing fear of crime
•“Probable cause for arrest” if not carried for identification purposes
•Constraints on individuals
•Ultimate icon of the citizen in society
•Without it a citizen would be unable to live, work and seek help
•Identity Cards
•Problems
•Dangers in terms of privacy violations, restriction in and surveillance of movement
•Issuing and updating processes difficult to secure
•Difficult to control and monitor access to information
•Identity Cards
•Concern among disadvantaged people –
•Slum landlords, corrupt employers demanding access to the cards and PIN numbers as a condition of tenancy or employment
•Technically and economically prudent to introduce a multi-function card
•Social cost too great
•Voluntary/compulsory – irrelevant – citizens would be expected to produce the card
•Nature of work in Cyberspace
•Computer-enabled working practices
•teleworking or telecommuting
•hot-desking
•hoteling
•virtual teams
•Teleworking
•Work that suits
•undertaken by individuals rather than teams
•requires minimal supervision
•be easily measurable
•not depend upon expensive or bulky equipment
•Teleworking
•Activities
•professional and management specialists
•professional support workers
•field workers
•information technology specialists
•clerical support workers
•Teleworking
•Potential benefits
•gains in productivity might be achieved
•reductions in overhead costs might occur
•staff retention might improve
•the sources of available labour could increase
•service to customers might improve
•Teleworking
•Issues concerning employees
•job satisfaction
•commuting
•regulations
•the social structure of the organisation
•contribution made by remote workers
•Teleworking
•Some ethical issues
•teleworkers from economically poor areas
•teleworkers in remote locations
•permanency of jobs
•computer-enabled communication
•workplace
•electronic monitoring
•Education and Training
•The internet is increasingly being pushed as a means to expand the reach of higher education.
•Some view the Internet as a relative panacea for our educational ills, while others see it as tool that will isolate and separate humanity, eventually tearing apart our links to past and future.

•Education and Training
•Stoll, in his book titled Silicon Snake Oil (1996), argued that “schools, libraries, and even businesses are being sold down the river, wasting money on ineffective and counterproductive computing systems.” He stated that “the heavily promoted information infrastructure addresses few social needs or business concerns. At the same time, it directly threatens precious parts of our society, including schools, libraries, and social institutions
•Education and Training
•Crawford Killian (author of “On Surfing and Steering the Net”) offered a contrastingly positive view on the Internet and description of teachers’ use of it. “Rather than operating as individual pioneers, people are forming very tight-knit and responsive groups that can make life easier for everybody else (p. 14).”

•Government
•Government can be slow to adopt new technologies.
•Government agencies have limited budgets, long procurement cycles, and requirements for special allocations to acquire new technology
•Government tend to have smaller IS staffs, who receive less pay than their counterparts in private business
•Government
•Governments are affected by changes in technology.
•Technology used by politicians campaigning for office.
•Electronic voting systems to provide faster tallies of votes
•Nature of Business in Cyberspace
•Issues for the employer:
•Productivity
代写ISYS200 Ethics and the future of the Net•30/40% access from within the corporate workplace is not business related.
•50% of people found time to visit adult sites from work
•92% online traders trade from work
•84% search for new jobs
•54% visit chat rooms.
•Internet main cause of divorce in America today
•Psychiatric units are being set up for addicts
•Nature of Business in Cyberspace
•Investment protection
•Outlay = $100,000
•30/40% non business-related usage
•70% of people downloading MP3 music files do so from work
•Legal exposure
•Provides employees with quick and easy access to illegal activities
•Legal E-Pitfalls
•Illegal material – pornography, etc.
•Illegal software
•Harassment issues
•Legal action can be taken by an employee against their employer if they are subject to exposure to objectionable material
•Hacking tools
•Liability – who’s liable? Companies are liable for employee’s actions, even if they are unaware of a breach.
•Nature of Business in Cyberspace
Electronic commerce
•increasing growth
•technological, commercial and political pull
•ethically charged application
•boomerang experience!

To trade virtually becomes essential
•E-Banking
•Advantages
•Services available regardless of space and time
•Consistent representation of a bank
•Low cost form of advertisement worldwide
•Allows small banks to expand their business geographically and broaden customer base
•Less need for establishing new branches
•E-Banking
•Disadvantages
•Reduction in bank staff – increased unemployment
•Erosion of personal relationships between banks and their customers
•Security threats and risks
•E-Banking
•Security – should be addressed at 2 levels
•First level – ensuring the integrity and security of messages exchanged – e.g. use of digital signatures and encryption
•Second level – protection of the system itself against technical malfunction, computer misuse, inadequate design, improper implementation, etc.
•Measures to overcome security risks mainly grouped into 3 categories:
•Prevention measures
•Detection measures
•Containment measures
•Ethical Issues in Internet Banking
•Banking – traditionally based on high levels of bank secrecy and financial privacy for customers
•E.banking raises issues regarding
•Risks to Privacy
•Potential for electronic surveillance
•Opportunities for profiling
•Anonymity – this can lead to:
•Money laundering
代写ISYS200 Ethics and the future of the Net•Tax evasion
•Financial fraud
•Impacts of Internet banking
•Changes in the global financial marketplace
•New companies now offering financial services – e.g. Tesco’s, etc.
•These pose serious challenges to Central banks’ largely monopolistic position
•Central banks now need to re-think monetary policies in order to safeguard financial stability
•Need for new legal frameworks for consumer protection
•A View of the Future?
•Forster depicts “an underground utopia where all needs and desires are fulfilled at the touch of a button. Each individual remains isolated in his cell, physically inactive, engaging only in intellectual activities. An elaborate global communications network using voice and picture permits remote communication with anyone in the world. No direct experience or communication is necessary or even desirable. Every event is tightly scheduled, controlled, predictable, efficiently accomplished”. E.M. Forster “The Machine Breaks Down”
•Future Environments and Ethical Concerns
•Internet Ethics
•The Internet will change society. We must be aware of the potential benefits and dangers and be prepared to challenge any antisocial activity.
•Internet ethics are not optional, they must become a way of virtual life at work and in the home.
•4 Major Ethical Challenges
•Privacy – Personal intimacy and private life
•Accuracy, veracity and objectivity of information
•Intellectual property rights
•Regulation of and limitations to access

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