How Does the Transformation Leadership Approach Work

Chapter 8: Transformation Leadership

1

Overview

Transformational Leadership (TL) Perspective

A Model of Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership Factors

Full Range of Leadership Model

The Additive Effects of TL

Other Transformational Leadership Perspectives

How Does the Transformational Approach Work?

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Transformational Leadership

Process – TL is a process that changes and transforms individuals

Influence – TL involves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected

Core elements – TL is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals

Encompassing approach – TL describes a wide range of leadership influence where followers and leaders are bound together in the transformation process

Description

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

3

Types of Leadership Defined (Burns, 1978)

TRANSACTIONAL

Focuses on the

exchanges

that occur

between leaders

and their followers

TRANSFORMATIONAL

Process of

engaging with others

to create a connection that increases

motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower

Focuses on the

leader’s

own interests rather than the interests of his or her followers

PSEUDO-TRANSFORMATIONAL

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

4

Types of Leadership Defined (Burns, 1978)

 

TRANSACTIONAL

Focuses on the

exchanges

that occur

between leaders

and their followers

No new taxes = votes.

Turn in assignments = grade.

Surpass goals = promotion.

The exchange dimension is so common that you can observe it at all walks of life.

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Types of Leadership Defined (Burns, 1978)

Leaders who are

transforming but in a negative way

self-consumed, exploitive; power- oriented, with warped moral values

includes leaders like

Adolph Hitler

Saddam Hussein

PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL

Focuses on the

leader’s

own interests rather than the interests of his or her followers

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Pseudotransformational (Christie, Barling, & Turner, 2011)

Four experimental studies => model of pseudotransformational leadership

Self-serving

Unwilling to encourage independent thought in followers

Exhibits little general caring for others

Uses inspiration and appeal to manipulate followers for his or her own ends

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978)

TRANSFORMATIONAL

Process of

engaging with others

to create a connection

that increases

motivation

and morality in both the

leader and the follower

Leader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followers reach their fullest potential.

Mohandas Gandhi raised the hopes and demands of millions of his people and in the process was changed himself

Ryan White raised people’s awareness about AIDS

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Transformational Leadership & Charisma

Charisma – A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader (Weber, 1947)

Charismatic Leadership Theory (House, 1976)

Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers

Definition

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

9

Theory of Charismatic Leadership

(House, 1976)

10

Theory of Charismatic Leadership (Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993)

Charismatic Leadership –

Transforms follower’s self-concepts; tries to link identity of followers to collective identity of the organization

Forge this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards & de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards

Throughout process, leaders

Express high expectations for followers

help followers gain sense of self-confidence and self-efficacy

Later Studies

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Model of Transformational Leadership (Bass, 1985)

Expanded and refined version of work done by Burns and House. It included

More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs

Suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive

Described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum

Extended House’s work by

Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma

Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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TL motivates followers beyond the expected by

raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals

transcending self-interest for the good of the team or organization

addressing higher-level needs

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

13

Transformational Leadership Factors

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

14

Full Range of Leadership Model

15

Transformational Leadership Factors: The 4 Is

Idealized Influence

Acting as strong role models

High standards of moral and ethical conduct

Making others want to follow the leader’s vision

Inspirational Motivation

Communicating high expectations

Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared vision

Using symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Transformational Leadership Factors: The 4 Is

Intellectual Stimulation

Stimulating followers to be creative and innovative

Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and organization

Supporting followers to

Try new approaches

Develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues

Individualized Consideration

Listening carefully to the needs of followers

Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized

Helping followers grow through personal challenges

Ex. Showing optimism helps employees become more engaged in their work (Tims et al., 2011)

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

Transactional Leadership Factors

The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards

Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement

Two forms

Active – Watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violations

Passive – Intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen

Management-by-Exception

Contingent Reward

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

18

Nonleadership Factor

The Absence of Leadership

A hands-off, let-things-ride approach

Refers to a leader who

abdicates responsibility

delays decisions

gives no feedback, and

makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs

Laissez-Faire

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

19

20

Bennis & Nanus (1985)

Four Leader Strategies in Transforming Organizations

Clear vision of organization’s future state

TL’s social architect of organization

Create trust by making their position known and standing by it

Creatively deploy themselves through positive self-regard

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

21

Kouzes & Pozner (1987, 2002)

Model consists of five fundamental practices

Model the Way

Inspire a Shared Vision

Challenge the Process

Enable Others to Act

Encourage the Heart

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

22

How Does the Transformation Leadership Approach Work?

Focus of Transformation Leadership

Strengths

Criticisms

Application

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

23

Transformational Leadership

TLs empower and nurture followers

TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers

TLs commonly create a vision

TLs require leaders to become social architects

TLs build trust & foster collaboration

Describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and carry out significant changes in organizations

Overall Scope

Focus of Transformation

Leaders

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

24

Strengths

Broadly researched. TL has been widely researched, including a large body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs in major firms.

Intuitive appeal. People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to them.

Process focused. TL treats leadership as a process occurring between followers and leaders.

Expansive leadership view. TL provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models.

Emphasizes followers. TL emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and morals.

Effectiveness. Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of leadership.

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

25

Criticisms

Lacks conceptual clarity

Dimensions are not clearly delimited

Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership

Measurement questioned

Validity of MLQ not fully established

Some transformation factors are not unique solely to the transformation model

TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a behavior that can be taught

No causal link shown between transformation leaders and changes in followers or organizations

TL is elitist and antidemocratic

Suffers from heroic leadership bias

Has the potential to be abused

Peter G. Nuthouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Application

Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual concerns

Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization

Able to positively impact a firm’s performance

May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion, and training development

Can be used to improve team development, decision-making groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations

The MLQ and Sosik and Jung (2010) guide help leaders to target areas of leadership improvement

Peter G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and Practice, Seventh Edition. © 2016 SAGE Publications, Inc.

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