How people try to attain white skin means for social and economic advancement

Essay One: Explaining Concepts

 

“Explaining concepts is a kind….of explanatory writing that is especially important for college students because it involves widely applicable strategies for critical reading and is frequently called for in essay exams and paper assignments” (Axelrod et al. 183).

 

The Writing Assignment–Inspired by the Melanie Tannen baum essay (p. 271), write an explanation of the concept of (choose one of the topics below):

· Benevolent Sexism (directed at men or women)

· Sexism (directed at men or women)

· Benevolent Racism (to one specific race or a collection of different races that are of the non-dominant, non-power holding segment of society)

· Racism (to one specific race or a collection of different races that are of the non-dominant, non-power holding segment of society)

· Ethnocentrism (to one specific ethnicity or a collection of different ethnicity that are of the non-dominant, non-power holding segment of society)

· Colorist or certain beauty standards that privilege one group of people over another

· Homophobia or hate towards those who are Transgender

· Islamophobia, Antisemitism, or hate towards a particular religion

Audience and Purpose: Choose one of these concepts and explain what they are to a reading audience who is unaware or in denial that such hatred still exists in the 21st century.  In the 21st century, many feel that such old prejudices are non-existent; yet, we see time and again on the news and social media a resurgence of hate due to the political and cultural climate.  Your essay will explain this concept of your choice to an unknowing audience (or an audience who is in denial).

Guidelines:

1) The maximum page length is 4 pages.  If you go over the maximum that is fine.

2a) In addition to the expected length, you will have a Works Cited page to indicate sources used throughout the essay that were used in either a direct quote form and/or a paraphrase form.

2b) Perhaps you might use the Tannenbaum essay as one of your sources in writing this essay.

3) The essay will observe MLA formatting rules and the essay will observe MLA rules of properly documenting direct quotes and paraphrases.

4)  Remember to use the Sandwiching Technique in your researched based essays (please refer to the document titled “Research Basics” found in the menu option titled “Documents and Weblinks.”)

5) Never use the informal “I, me, my” voice nor never address the reader as “you” in your essays.  Use the formal tone, preferably “one, we.”

6) Due date: Refer to the Schedule/Syllabus.

Here is a Sample Outline of an Explaining a Concept Essay

The Topic: Coulorism and other Impossible Beauty Standards in Asia

I) Introduction

· Lead-in: Discuss how there are unfair beauty standards that privilege one group of people over another.

· Thesis and Essay Map: Across Asia, we see racist and unfair beauty standards used to classify people in an unfair way.  From favoring lighter skin (Colorism) to undergoing plastic surgery, we see people go to extraordinary lengths to achieve higher status in society.

II) Body Paragraphs

A) Topic Sentence: In certain countries in Asia, being as white as possible is a mark of distinction that supposedly marks one as upper-class. 

a. India–describe, explain, and analyze how people try to attain white skin and what that means for social and economic advancement.  Perhaps utilize a source to validate this example.

b. The Philippines–describe, explain, and analyze how people try to attain white skin and what that means for social and economic advancement.  Perhaps utilizing a source to validate this example.

c. Korea–describe, explain, and analyze how people try to attain white skin and what that means for social and economic advancement.  Perhaps utilizing a source to validate this example.

B) Topic Sentence:  Next, many people across Asia undergo plastic surgery procedures to look more European/Western and be perceived as “beautiful”; such beauty buys them higher status as well.  

a. Nose jobs–describe, explain, and analyze how and why people undergo this procedure: how does it buy the person a higher place in society.  Perhaps utilizing a source to validate this example.

b. Double eye lid surgery–describe, explain, and analyze how and why people undergo this procedure; how does it buy the person a higher place in society.  Perhaps utilizing a source to validate this example.

c. Breast enhancement surgery–describe, explain, and analyze how and Asian women undergo this procedure; how does it buy the woman a higher place in society.  Perhaps utilizing a source to validate this example.

III) Conclusion

· End the essay letting the reader know that Coulorism and favoring European/Western beauty standards exists and that so many people try to change themselves just to fit in or ascend the social/economic ladder.

 

Essay 1: Annotated Works Cited and Outline

Essay 1: Introduction and Body Paragraph

How to Counter-Argue

The counter-arguing technique below is a process that involves a series of steps.

When counter-arguing, some professors will suggest that you engage in it with every one of your points/examples from each of your paragraphs or with only one or some of your points/examples from each of your paragraphs.  Always ask your professor how many times you must use the counter-arguing technique in your essay.

Likewise, some professors will suggest that you save all of your counter-arguments for a paragraph on its own or that the counter-arguments follow a particular point/example.  Again, always ask your professor which method of organization they prefer.

The counter-arguing technique:

1) Articulate your position/example–provide detailed explanations to support this example (*to strengthen the position/example, you may want to provide a quote/paraphrase from a reliable source*). **If you do provide a source to validate you, make sure to properly parenthetically cite the source and to use the Sandwiching Technique.**

2) State that there is opposition to this position/example–provide detailed explanations that your opponent would use (you may also want to mention the research that your opponent would use to validate themselves.  This shows respect for the opponent and that you’re not afraid of their opposition against you).  For example:

· “Those who feel opposite would state…”

· “There are some who feel that…”

3) Politely start your counter-argument by employing one of these techniques:

· conceding to your opponent (conceding means admitting if your opponent is correct in some way.  This is a good way to disarm your opponent and/or “psyche them out” so they don’t see your counter-argument coming.  Of course, they might be partly “correct” but they aren’t completely correct because your job is to show them that you are the correct one later in your counter-argument.)

· showing respect towards their differing position

· showing respect and appreciation for their hard work in expressing their opposition towards you

This shows the reader your respectful nature, and you’ll appeal to more people based on your upstanding character.  For example:

· “While it’s true that…”

· “That’s a valid point that…”

· “I deeply respect my opponent’s dedication on their part when…”

· “I respect all differing opinions towards mine…”

4) Articulate/Assert how your position is valid by employing one of these techniques:

· exposing an inconsistency in your opponent’s earlier statement/opposition to your position/example

· exposing a flaw in logic in your opponent’s earlier statement/opposition to your position/example

· exposing something short-sighted in your opponent’s earlier statement/opposition to your position/example

***If your opponent used an unreliable source, expose it.  If your opponent engaged in bad logic while expressing their position, expose it.  Employing any one of these techniques reinforces your previously stated strong position/example (and explanation of it) and wins over the audience (and maybe, your opponent).***

By doing all of these steps, you will successfully persuade your reader and maybe your opponent that your overall position has merit.

How to Write an Annotated Works Cited List/Page

For every essay you write, the first thing you will do is find your sources and then write out the chosen sources you will use for your essay in an Annotated Works Cited list.

An Annotated Works Cited list is basically a list of your sources that are written and formatted just as you would write them and format them in your Works Cited  of your essays.  What makes this Works Cited “Annotated” is that after each source you give an explanation as to why you chose this source for your essay and how it will be useful in helping you write your essay as a research source.

Here is an example of an Annotated Works Cited:

Smith, John.  “Medical Marijuana’s Benefits.” Time magazine.com.  Time Magazine INC.  5 February 2011.  Web.  30 June 2014.

The reason I chose this particular article is because it was written over a 2 year study that chronicled the research to prove that medical Marijuana has profound benefits to many terminally ill as well as psychologically ill patients.  The journalist, John Smith, interviewed 3 European doctors who are leading specialists in medical Marijuna research and I find that their testimonies in the article will greatly help my position in support of making medical marijuana a nationwide treatment here in the U.S.  I will particularly use this article in one of my body paragraphs that talks about the lifesaving benefits of medical marijuana.

Ok class, I hope that this brief example makes it very clear what an Annotated Works Cited is and how to write it.

Again, to reiterate: 1) notice that the source is written as it would appear in an actual Works Cited page.  It has all the necessary publication information and it’s formatted according to MLA guidelines. 2) notice that the paragraph that follows explains how it will be helpful in writing the particular essay.

Well class, I hope that this lecture is clear.

Parenthetical Citations Guide

(Last name   pg#).    Typical parenthetical citation.

 

(pg#).   Name of the author already mentioned in the Introduction phrase.

 

(Last name).    Source has no page numbers.

 

   No Citation, just the period at the end of the sentence. Name of the author already mentioned in the Introduction phrase and the source has no page numbers.

 

(“Title of article” or Major Text Title  pg#).   The author of the source does not recieve credit for the article or the text. 

 

(Title).    Author does not get credit for the text and the source has no page numbers.

 

(Name of organization  pg#).    Organization of people wrote the text.

 

(Name of organization).    The text written by the organization has no page numbers.

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