In Romans 1:16-3:20, what does Paul demonstrates about humanity

Pauline Epistles: Interpretation of Covenant History

In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for

CST 130

New Testament Survey

Professor Gabriel Estrada


Jason Bourne

November 16, 2018

California Baptist University

Fall, 2018


According to the Gospels, Jesus establishes the New Covenant while the book of Acts records Covenant History, and the Pauline Epistles provides an interpretation of Covenant History. In these letters, Paul interprets God’s work in Christ as purely grace that reconciles and restores all things in Him.

Interpretation of Covenant History

Paragraph #1

Romans and Galatians: How does Paul describe Jesus as the Sacrifice that bears and atones for the sins of the nation(s)? What does Jesus accomplish through his sacrifice? (Think of the theme of reconciliation)


1. Identify the theme for the book of Romans.

2. In Romans 1:16-3:20, what does Paul demonstrates about humanity?

3. In Romans 3:21-4:25, how does Paul describe Jesus? What did he do on our behalf? How shall we respond to his work?

4. In Romans 5-16, what has Jesus accomplished for us through his death and resurrection? What are we called to do as a result (cf.12:1-2; 13:8-10)?


1. Identify the main theme for Galatians.

2. How does Paul describe a person who is under the law? They are under a ________.

3. How does Jesus deliver those who are under the law?

4. What must those condemned under the law do in order to be free from its penalty?

5. What does Christ free us from?

6. Are we completely free from any law?

Paragraph #2

1-2 Corinthians: How does Paul describe Jesus as the wisdom and power of God? What does Jesus accomplish through his sacrifice?

1. Identify the theme.

2. What is the OT understanding of wisdom? and how does wisdom function in 1 Corinthians?

3. How did the Corinthians view the cross? and according to 2 Corinthians 12:9, how did Paul view the cross? (think about the theme for 2 Corinthians).

4. How does God demonstrate his power in the cross of Christ in the following areas?

i. Suffering/death

ii. Sorrow

iii. Selfishness

Paragraph #3

Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians: How does Paul describe Jesus as the Sovereign King who unifies and reconciles all things?

1. Identify the central theme for Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians.

2. Ephesians: How does Paul describe Jesus as the Sovereign King who places everything in its proper place.

3. Philippians: Explain how Jesus is depicted as the Cosmic Christ/King (cf. Phil.2:5-11).

4. Colossians: What does it mean that Jesus is the “firstborn of all creation” (Col.1:15)?

5. Colossians: Describe how Jesus is the “firstborn” over creation and the new creation.

Paragraph #4

1-2 Thessalonians: How does Paul describe Jesus as the Supreme Judge who administers retribution upon all of God’s enemies?

1. Identify the theme.

2. In 1 Thess.1:9-10 and 4:16-17, to which biblical passages does Paul seem to be alluding. Recall the activities associated with that person.

3. According to Paul, what is the promised hope?

4. How does Paul describe Jesus as the one who administers retribution upon all of God’s enemies?

5. What is the relationship between hope, faith, and love? In the historical context, think about how the people of God respond because of their promised hope.

Paragraph #5

Pastorals and Philemon: How does Paul describe Jesus as the Savior that provides the hope and incentive for ethical living?

1. Identify the theme(s) for the Pastorals.

2. Identify the problem(s) for the Pastorals.

3. To restore order to the church, what does Paul instruct Timothy to do?

4. According to 1 Timothy, list the aspects of right doctrine.

5. According to 1 Timothy, list the aspects of right conduct.

6. According to 1 Timothy and Titus, explain the relationship between right doctrine (orthodoxy) and right conduct (orthopraxy). How does Philemon serve as an example of this relationship?


Paul interprets the work of God in Christ as grace that redeems sinners from eternal punishment through the substitutionary work of Christ. Since Jesus, the righteousness of God, propitiated God’s wrath, he pronounces sinners legally justified by faith and declares victory over every enemy including death. Therefore, God’s amazing grace and future hope provides the incentive for faithful living and obedience to the law of love until we meet him “in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord (1Thess.4:17).”

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