Rhetorical appeals (Pathos, Ethos, Logos)

This is basically an MLA 3 1/2 page essay based on Rethorical appeals (Pathos, Ethos, Logos). You are to find an online ad and explain to your readers why and how the ad is effective (or not) at appealing to an audience of consumers and selling them on the idea or product presented.

 

Successful assignments will:

1.  be focused on analyzing an advertisement, current or vintage, that’s appropriate for a college-level audience;

2. include a thesis statement at the end of the introduction that conveys the overall effectiveness of the chosen ad;

3. include details to establish the visual description and context of the ad;

4. identify the various ways rhetorical appeals are used;

5. be typed and submitted as a Microsoft Word 2010 document (.docx), with 12-point font and MLA formatting for margins, title page, running heads, and page numbers.

6. be three to four double-spaced pages, not including the title page; and

7. be submitted to the proper Dropbox for grading

 

There is a sample essay on the attachment. MAKE SURE YOU LEAVE A LINK TO THE AD.

 

Module II Lecture & Assignment

  1. Module II Essay Assignment

First, read Module II lecture and begin reading Chapter 9 in your textbook. Then go to the search engine of your choice and search for a print advertisement to use as the subject of your Rhetorical Analysis. You will need to provide a URL for your chosen ad, so be sure it is available online. Your chosen ad can be current or vintage. If you would like to analyze an ad from a different time period, type the phrase “vintage ads” into your browser.

Choose an ad that you can analyze based on its rhetorical appeals (reasoning, character, and emotion), and be sure the ad you choose is intriguing to you. Please make sure that your chosen ad is appropriate for classroom use and the workplace.

The Rhetorical Analysis Essay

. Draw upon Module II lecture, and textbook reading to help you understand and meet the requirements for the Rhetorical Analysis Essay. Other than finding your chosen ad online, no outside research is required for this essay. Although outside research is discouraged, you may incorporate research if it has a clear purpose in the essay. Any research used must be formatted in MLA style through in-text citations and the end References page.

At the end of your Rhetorical Analysis Essay, copy and paste the URL or website address for your ad (it will begin with http://) so that your readers also can view the ad.

Successful assignments will:

  1. be focused on analyzing an advertisement, current or vintage, that’s appropriate for a college-level audience;
  2. include a thesis statement at the end of the introduction that conveys the overall effectiveness of the chosen ad;
  3. include details to establish the visual description and context of the ad;
  4. identify the various ways rhetorical appeals are used;
  5. be typed and submitted as a Microsoft Word 2010 document (.docx), with 12-point font and MLA formatting for margins, title page, running heads, and page numbers.
  6. be three to four double-spaced pages, not including the title page; and
  7. be submitted to the proper Dropbox for grading.
  8. Draft Outline
  9. INTRODUCTION

In this section of the outline, draft a possible introductory paragraph. Remember that the introduction should identify the subject of your analysis and provide the overall purpose for writing. Because the thesis statement normally serves as the transitional point between the introduction and body, draft your tentative thesis as the last sentence of the introduction.

  1. CONTEXT AND DESCRIPTION OF ADVERTISEMENT

Use this section of the outline to brainstorm the details that will need to be included in your essay to describe the ad to your readers and provide the context. Remember that your readers will not be seeing the actual ad alongside your essay, so your words will serve as the visual description. You do not need to write in complete paragraphs in this section, but you should identify key descriptions or characteristics to include in complete sentences. Use the bullet points below to help guide your points.

  • Identify any historical, social, or political significance of the ad by explaining the time period in which it was originally published.
  • If possible, identify the publication in which the ad was originally published, and identify the target audience.
  • Include any necessary background about the company that might contribute to the context, including its reason for advertising.
  • Using specific details, describe the ad to your readers, considering elements such as color, text, images, mood, and so on.

III.        ANALYSIS OF RHETORICAL APPEALS (see handout in Contents)

Use this section of the outline to identify the types of rhetorical appeals that are present in your chosen ad. Under each type of appeal, explain the way(s) the company has used the different types of appeals. Remember, all three types of appeals may not be present; some appeals may be represented in more than one area while others may not be represented at all. Use complete sentences in your responses.

  • Reasoning (Logos)

Example: The copy at the bottom of the ad states that a One A Day vitamin has 450 mg of calcium.

  • Character (Ethos)

Example: According to the ad, the One A Day brand of vitamin includes more calcium than any other brand.

  • Emotion (Pathos)

Example: The woman’s body pictured in the ad is muscular and fit; however, the caption in bold lettering at the top of the ad warns that the woman’s “hard body” may have “soft bones.”

  1. CONCLUSION

In this section of the outline, draft a possible concluding paragraph. Your conclusion should summarize the overall findings and link to your purpose with a restatement of the thesis.

Note: When you finish your outline, drop it in the appropriate dropbox and then use the outline to write the final three- to four-page Rhetorical Analysis Essay.

Module II Lecture

The Rhetorical Analysis Essay

I hope doing the outline got you started thinking about your chosen advertisement for analysis. It asked you to draft an introduction, a thesis, and a conclusion, and it pushed you to think about the visual components, details, and overall context of the advertisement. Finally, it asked you to consider which rhetorical appeals are present in your advertisement. Now that you’ve done this background work, it’s time to put these pieces together to create a coherent essay. So, just what steps should you take to shape the extended outline into a polished essay? Let’s start with some reflection.

The purpose of the Rhetorical Analysis is to make a judgment about the effectiveness of your chosen advertisement. It is not important to share whether or not you personally like the product or message being advertised; instead, you must explain to your readers why and how the ad is effective (or not) at appealing to an audience of consumers and selling them on the idea or product presented. One way to determine whether or not this goal is met is to reflect on your thesis statement. Think of your thesis as your claim, a powerful statement you provide that sums up your main thought, idea, or judgment. The thesis gives your readers insight into the purpose or direction of your writing. It promises them a certain point, and therefore the rest of your essay should work to prove that point.

Don’t forget that the thesis can—and often will—change as you write, reflect, and polish. Take a look back at your thesis you wrote for your outline. Does it provide your readers with an overall statement of the effectiveness of the text? Is it powerful enough to serve as the focus for the paper, which the body of the paper will support? Notice how the writer makes changes from the draft to the revision in the following Rhetorical Analysis thesis statement:

Draft: The Giorgio Armani men’s fragrance ad uses actor Josh Hartnett to attract viewers and sell the product.

Revision: Giorgio Armani uses the stylish and handsome image of actor Josh Hartnett to promote its Diamonds for Men fragrance by luring viewers in with emotion and credibility, yet the ad provides no logical reasoning to purchase the product.

The draft provides a good start for a thesis. Readers will understand that the fragrance ad uses an actor to catch the reader’s attention, but the information is still fairly limited and underdeveloped. The thesis needs revision. Readers want to know more to get a sense for the ad’s impact, which ultimately helps them determine whether or not they want to continue reading the essay. Notice how the revision provides more power and relevancy. The revision allows readers to understand that the ad campaign is focused on a celebrity’s image and good looks to appeal to emotions and credibility, yet readers also know that logic is lacking.

Now that you’ve reflected on your thesis and made any necessary changes, think about how you will prove your thesis throughout the body of the essay. The work you did in identifying the ad’s rhetorical appeals should guide the bulk of your supporting paragraphs. By discussing the strategies the advertiser uses to sell or promote the product, you’ll be proving the promise of your thesis.

Thesis: Giorgio Armani uses the stylish and handsome image of actor Josh Hartnett to promote its Diamonds for Men fragrance by luring viewers in with emotion and credibility, yet the ad provides no logical reasoning to purchase the product.

*Now, ask yourself why or how the thesis is true. Your supporting paragraphs should answer this question.

Body Paragraph 1: The choice of Josh Hartnett to serve as the face of the Diamonds for Men ad campaign was certainly motivated by an appeal to credibility. As the first male celebrity to represent Giorgio Armani, Hartnett provides viewers with a familiar face due to his starring roles in Pearl Harbor and Black Hawk Down. The fact that he is a well-known movie star establishes credibility for the product by demonstrating that the fragrance is chosen by someone who is sophisticated, fashionable, and, most importantly, desirable. The ad itself shows this desire by picturing Harnett surrounded not only by beautiful women, but also by several paparazzi. It seems that everyone wants Hartnett’s attention, and Giorgio Armani would like the viewer to think that it is because of his fragrance.

In this body paragraph, the writer leads with a topic sentence that tells readers that the focus of the paragraph will be on explaining the ad’s appeal to credibility. It then provides background on the ad, such as Hartnett’s resume, to continue building the context of the ad. Then the writer explains how Hartnett’s image is meant to connect with readers through an appeal to credibility, and it further explains details of the ad that help the reader visualize the image and better understand the writer’s assertions.

Analyzing texts is about more than simply stating the strategies a writer uses to deliver a message. It is also about understanding any underlying implications present or determining the strategies writers might be using to persuade (or sometimes even manipulate) readers. While this is often the case in advertising, writers often have underlying motivations that drive the delivery of their message in other types of texts. As critical readers and writers, it’s important that we always look deeply to uncover these motivations, implications, or strategies. Remember that the essay’s conclusion often serves as the place to convey these important takeaways. As you take a look back at the conclusion you drafted last week, ask yourself if you’ve acknowledged these factors successfully. After all, uncovering the deeper meaning and reporting it back to your readers is ultimately what will provide relevancy and make your essay stand out.

Conclusion: Advertising companies often call upon celebrities to sell products, and there was perhaps no better choice for Giorgio Armani than Josh Hartnett. Hartnett not only establishes credibility as a movie star, but he connects with the audience emotionally because many readers value his portrayed image of glamour and sophistication. Still, is image alone enough to sell a product? Giorgio Armani gives us no logical reasons to purchase the product and instead hopes that a handsome, familiar face will be enough to sway us into purchasing the fragrance. In essence, Giorgio Armani is relying on the reader’s desire to be like the rich and famous rather than their understanding that it takes a lot more than a fragrance to make one popular. While many readers realize that no fragrance will put them in the ranks of a famous movie star, the Diamonds for Men ad is a perfect indication that there are still many consumers who will do what it takes to copy the image Hartnett and Armani present. Hopefully, their efforts will at least leave them smelling good.

This conclusion not only reiterates the thesis by explaining that the ad relies heavily on emotion and credibility to sell the product, but it makes a larger judgment about the purpose of the ad in general. It addresses the larger concern that viewers often naively buy into an image for emotional reasons rather than those rooted in logic.

Notice that the suggestions for reflection and revision above are focused on larger content issues for your essay. Revision should always start with the higher-level concerns such as audience and purpose. Once you are sure that your audience’s needs are met and that your purpose is clear, review your content and the organization of your essay. Ask yourself if the body paragraphs meet the promise of the thesis, and be sure to revise as needed for any areas that are unclear or that lack focus. Next, you’ll want to think about word choice, style, and sentence clarity, making any needed revisions to help the overall coherence of your essay. Finally, once these components are in place, review lower-level concerns such as grammar, punctuation, spelling, and usage.

As you revise, it is a good idea to check your essay against the assignment requirements. Make it a habit to always review the assignment rubric before you submit your essay. Use it as a checklist for the assignment to be sure you’ve achieved all of the assignment goals. As you review the lecture and assigned textbook chapters, also create your own checklist, such as the one below.

  • Genre Requirements
  • Introduction catches readers’ attention and establishes the topic, angle, and purpose.
  • A thesis statement serves as the transitional point between the introduction and body paragraphs. It provides a clear judgment regarding whether or not the chosen advertisement is effective.
  • The advertisement is explained clearly with specific details and descriptions. Readers are able to visualize the ad without seeing it alongside the essay.
  • The context of the ad has been established, including any historical, social, and political information that contributes to understanding the advertisement and its message.
  • Rhetorical strategies are identified in body paragraphs. The use of these strategies is explained with enough support and elaboration to prove the promise of the thesis.
  • The conclusion ties the essay together by restating the main point and leaving readers with the intended dominant impression and larger purpose.

Writing Considerations:

  • The needs and expectations of the audience are met in terms of content, word choice, tone, and style.
  • Paragraphs include transitions, a topic sentence, and supporting sentences and stay focused on proving one main idea before moving on to the next.
  • Spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure are correct.

Formatting Considerations:

  • MLA formatting has been followed—a cover page, running heads, and page numbers have been included. Any research included (not required for the Rhetorical Analysis) has been documented appropriately with in-text citations and an end References page, both formatted in MLA style.
  • Page length requirements are met.
  • The paper has a title unique to the chosen subject.

 

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