Criminal Justice and Planning

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Chapter 1

1) Describe three trends that have increased the need for planned change.

Declining Resources as a consequence of declining resources, many groups have organized to promote change, both legally (through lawsuits) and politically

Accountability. As public resources have dwindled, agencies have increasingly been called upon to demonstrate their effectiveness and efficiency in meeting their goals.

Expansion of Knowledge and Technology. There are greater technological abilities than ever before, and these changes have created both new opportunities and new problems.

2) Define planned change and give an example.

Planned change is any project, program or policy, new or revised, intended to produce a change in some specific problem. Example: A parolee shoots and kills a police officer after a routine traffic stop. Intensive scrutiny and revision of state parole policies immediately follows.

3) Define unplanned change and give an example.

Unplanned change means that little explicit or proactive planning has taken place at all e.g. it often comes about as a reaction to a crisis. Example a dramatic incident published by media

4) Define and describe an example of each of the following:  policy, program and project.

A policy is set of rules or guidelines of how to make a decision. For example; police officers are required to read Miranda warnings to people they have arrested.

Program is a set of services aimed at achieving specific goals and objectives. For example; boot camp correctional program.

A Project is a time limited set of services. For example; evaluating a community correction program


5) Why are collaborative strategies of change preferable to conflict strategies? Explain.

Collaborative strategies seek involvement from all parties concerned while Conflict strategies are more likely to come into play where opposing parties have a strong history of disagreement;

6) Briefly describe the first six stages of planned change. What are the major questions we need to ask at each stage?

Stage 1Analyzing the Problem. Question; who are the relevant stakeholders?

Stage 2 Setting Goals and Objectives. Question; where do values conflict?

Stage 3Designing the Program or Policy. Question; who is it to be served or changed?

Stage 4 Developing an Action Plan, Question; how much funding is needed?

Stage 5 Developing a Plan the Monitoring Program and Policy Implementation. Question; is the target population being reached?

Stage 6 Developing a Plan for Evaluating the Outcomes. Question; did the program or policy achieve intended objective?

7) How did the 1968 President’s Commission Report influence thinking about criminal justice planning?


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