Trace the role of speech, writing, printing, pictures, etc. over the centuries.

Orality to Literacy to what?

In this essay you need to trace the role of speech, writing, printing, pictures, etc. over the centuries.


1.  How do oral cultures differ from literate ones?

2.  Are oral cultures a thing only of the past, or do they exist today?

3.  What advantages did literacy provide to previously oral cultures?

4.  What role did the printing press play in expanding literacy?

5.  What technologies made printed media available on a mass scale in America?

6.  Why was the telephone initially a “hard sell” to companies dealing with printed media?

7.  How did radio change American culture?

8.  What kinds of media creators tended to favor radio over print? Why?

9.  Does McLuhan think that TV promotes literacy or orality?  Why?

10.  What modern media (cell phones, computer, etc.) are basically aural? which print? has this shifted as the media developed? Has this influenced American culture?

— BE SURE you reference each of the following authors in a citation that relates to oral and literate culture:

Tony Schwartz

Marshall McLuhan

Plus other authors you find on your own.  For this I suggest:

Walter Ong

Edmund Carpenter

In addition you must find sources on your own.

In addition to citing Schwartz, McLuhan, (our “texts”) use other supporting materials — at least 9 additional sources total of which three, not counting our textbooks, must be printed, not online, sources.

Only one citation, at most, can be from Widipedia.

FINALLY:  Be sure to cite every statement you make.  Do not give your own opinion.  Just report on your research findings and cite where you found the information.

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